As taught to Rabbi Chaim Vital by Rabbi Isaac Luria and Amended by Rabbi Chaim's Son Shemuel.
Translated from Sha'ar Hagilgulim by Yitzchok bar Chaim; commentary by Shabtai Teicher of Blessed Memory and Completed by Rabbi Perets Aurback.
Published online with commentary by Kabbala online.com
This version will not have all of the commentary.
Please note: The publisher explains that the Study of Kabbalistic Texts usually recommends that one review the material many times until they are familiar with the vocabulary at a minimum.
Also Note: Bold Text represents the translation of the original Text. Regular text represents the commentary and explanation of the translator. Chanoch's comments will be identified separately.
Chapter 6 Section 1
Translation from Sha'ar Hagilgulim by Yitzchok bar Chaim;
Now we will discuss the idea of new and old souls, which we have already discussed somewhat in the Fifth Gate, The Gate of Mitzvot, regarding the mitzvah of sending away the mother bird (parashat Ki Tetze). We will also explain the origin of the root of souls.
These words are a general introduction. In the source mentioned, the Gate of Mitzvot, there is a section that is directly relevant to the subjects covered here.
Before we actually begin to get involved with what is being taught in this chapter, it is necessary to explain the concept of "back to back" and "face to face" unifications.
Two partzufim that are on the same level are destined to unite with each other. The nature of their unification depends on several factors. One of the most important is the amount and quality of mayim nukvim raised by the lower beings to the feminine aspect of the uniting supernal couple.
Normally, we raise mayim nukvim from the klipot to Malchut of Atzilut by the performance of mitzvot, the study of Torah and prayer. Malchut of Atzilut is none other than Nukva of Zeir Anpin (the consort of Z'A). Initially, she and Z'A stand Back to Back. (The reason for this will be briefly explained, with the help of G-d, in Section 2 of this chapter.) As a result of the merit that is being accrued by our mitzvot, Torah and prayer, they are able to turn to face each other face to face.
Of course, in order to unite they must be face to face, and the unification that takes place at that time is called the Unification of Face to Face (Zivug Panim Be'Panim). However, what happens if sufficient mayim nukvim has not been raised and they cannot turn towards each other face to face?
The lower couple has ascended to the place of the higher couple in order to unite there… It sometimes happens that the supernal couple will unite even though sufficient ma'n has not been raised. In such a case the higher couple, Abba and Imma, will raise ma'n for them. The unification that ensues is not called the unification of Z'A and his Nukva, but the unification of Abba and Imma. However, this is really not an ascent because it is entirely incomplete. It is as if they have united mentally, without physical completion. Or it might be compared to two very young children sleeping in their parents' bed. This type of unification is called Unification of Back to Back, Zivug Achor Be'Achor.
Indeed, this is what takes place in special cases of divine intervention when insufficient ma'n has been aroused. This is actually what happened when Adam, the first man, was created. You can see this in the relevant verses themselves (Gen. 2:5 - 7).
…G-d did not cause rain upon the earth
And there was no Man to work the Land.
A mist went up from the earth
To water all the face of the Land.
And G-d formed the Man from dust of the Land….
Rashi explains that G-d "did not cause rain upon the earth" because there was no one to pray for it. Therefore, the end of the verse states that "there was no Man to work the Land."
Adam was created by an act initiated from Above…In other words, there wasn't anyone to raise mayim nukvim from below for the unification of Z'A and Nukva. Consequently, the mayim nukvim that was necessary was raised, seemingly, on its own ("A mist went up from the earth…"). Thus, Adam was created by an act initiated from Above, because there was no one to arouse it by the raising of mayim nukvim from below.
In summary, the Unification of Back to Back takes place when there is an insufficient elevating of mayim nukvim from below. The partzufim are not really in a condition to unify, and the unification is accomplished on a level other than their real level. In contrast, Unification of Face to Face is the normal situation. It takes place when there is a sufficient arousal of mayim nukvim from below to above.
When all the worlds were created, even the world of Atzilut, they were brought into being by the Unification of Back to Back. Afterwards they turn to come into being in the aspect of Face to Face.
There is reason to think that the world of Atzilut was not brought into being by the Unification of Back to Back, but only by Face to Face. In fact, even Atzilut was first brought into being by the Unification of Back to Back. Moreover, it is the same worlds that are first brought into being by the Unification of Back to Back that are brought into being anew by the Unification of Face to Face.
This is also true of the souls of humanity. At first they came into being in the aspect of Back to Back.
These souls were born into the world by the Unification of Back to Back. There are those among them who have already been reborn by the Unification of Face to Face. The others will yet undergo that tikune.
We need to understand these Kabbalistic Concepts of Face to Face and Back to Back, both as a process and as a stage of Creation. I plan to duplicate this section of chapter 6 after we have studied section 2 as mentioned above. This is so we can connect to the idea of Back to Back and Face to Face.
You may have heard that Adam and Eve were created unified in a Back to Back mode and then HaShem built Eve from Adam's Rib and turned them to be two separate individuals who are able to unify through a mechanism of Face to Face. This is considered the missionary position of sexual intercourse. Until we understand these concepts we can not understand this fully. Or even participate in the full pleasure of sexual intercourse with our spouses or partners. This is a teaching of the Kabbalah which is usually not shared with many students since most people take offense to the idea that they do not know how to do the bringing of children in a proper Kabbalistic way. You may also have heard of the idea of bringing high and righteous souls using Kabbalistic meditations. These techniques and tools are all related to these concepts.
A righteous tzadik…can draw out a new soul…
However, from the time of Adam until the arrival of Mashiach, the tikune will be to renew those souls that were originally Back to Back, so that they can emerge from [the aspect of] Face to Face.
The above paragraph is describing in words that are a bit concealed the renewal of the souls on Rosh HaShanah. We must also realize that just as Adam and Eve were created Back to Back, each year on Rosh Hashanah your soul is created again as new through this mechanism of Back to Back. The purpose of the 22 days of Holidays in Tishrai is to build the actions of Mayim Nukvim so that your personal creation will be considered Face to Face. This will be discussed during our preparations for the High Holidays that will start after the Holiday of Tu B'av.
After they were created Back to Back, they descended with the Shechina into exile among the klipot. However, a righteous tzadik through an absolutely good intention can draw out a new soul.
The "new soul" mentioned here is actually the renewed soul that was at first Back to Back and has been turned to Face to Face. That is the main point of the Rav throughout this section. However, what is "an absolutely good intention " that can accomplish this renewal?
The word "intention" is the standard translation of the word used in the original Hebrew text, kavanah. A better translation, perhaps, is "meditation." It means the internal and highest level of Prayer. Sometimes it has been called "meditative prayer."
Besides the quality of the intention itself, there are other elements that come into effect. For example, when is it happening, on Shabbat or during the week? Who is doing it? In this case the Rav says that it is a righteous tzadik. The intention must also be supercharged with the merit of Torah and mitzvot and must be done with awareness and total simplicity, as it is written, "G-d is close to all those who call upon Him in truth…" (Psalms 145:18).
In other words, through this intention a soul can ascend from the klipot to be renewed in the secret of "They are new every morning; great is Your faithfulness " (Lamentations 3:23).
The soul that is being elevated from the klipot by the person's intentions was originally created from the Unification of Back to Back. It is finally raised to a place where it will be renewed, recreated, and brought into being anew by the Unification of Face to Face.
Afterwards it will descend from the aspect of Face to Face into this world. It will be the beginning of its existence, and it will be called "new."
These souls are predisposed in such a way as to not sin like other souls.
Other souls, who are in the secret of Back to Back when they enter into bodies, are likely to become involved in sin. These new souls, however, are so full of Light and spiritual power that they are predisposed not to sin at all when they enter into this world.
Do you see how the use of the term "New Soul" has the opposite meaning in Kabbalah than in New Age teachings. How do you think this happened? Is it coincidence? Or the work of Satan to create a longer process? How do you think misusing and misunderstanding vocabulary creates a longer process? How can you stop this from happening?
[Commentary by Shabtai Teicher.
Chapter 6 Section 2
Translation from Sha'ar Hagilgulim by Yitzchok bar Chaim; commentary by Shabtai Teicher
Please remember that BY'A means the worlds of Bria Yetzirah and Assiya - Creation, Formation, and Action. These are the Three lower worlds corresponding to the Sefirot of Binah, Zeir Anpin, and Malchut.
At this stage of history we only have the ability to draw new souls from BY'A, which are the of Neshama, Ruach, and Nefesh, as is known.
BY'A is the abbreviation for the worlds of Beriya, Yetzira, and Asiya. They correspond to Neshama, Ruach, and Nefesh, respectively, as is known. It is only these levels of the soul body of Adam that can emerge as new souls, until the time of the Resurrection of the Dead.
However, in the future, after the Resurrection of the Dead, higher "new souls" will descend from the world of Atzilut. They will be from the Atzilut level of the soul of Adam, which is called Zehira Ila'a [Upper Emanation], as we will explain in future discussions.
This is the secret of what is written in the Zohar, (Pekudei 253a) "From the time the Temple was destroyed, souls have not entered the Sanctuary of Love [Heichel Ha'ahava]."
The Ari will now give this teaching of the Zohar a unique interpretation based on the topic at hand.
At the end of this section and my commentary of this section i have pasted the Zohar Pekudei Section 50 as mentioned above. This is for your study to "see" how the ARIzal perceives things differently than other people when reading/studying the Zohar.
New souls that are born from the Unification of Face to Face from Atzilut have not entered there [the Sanctuary of Love]. However, new souls from BY'A can come [into that place] even in these days after the Destruction of the Temple.
All the other souls that come into the world were included in the soul body of Adam after he was created by the Unification of Back to Back.
Since Zu'N are Back to Back…the klipot are afraid to approach her face…
New souls can come from BY'A, but not from Atzilut. All other souls that come into the world are old souls. They are all born from the Unification of Back to Back.
They need to be separated from the aspect of Back to Back, and turned to Face to Face. Z'A and Nukva (abbreviated: Zu'N) are originally manifested Back to Back, as mentioned previously. The Ari explains the reason for this.
The klipot want to suck light and nourishment from Nukva. She is susceptible to them because she does not contain great light in the first place and "Her feet go down to death…" (Proverbs 5:5). If Zu'N were Face to Face, then the back of Nukva would be exposed, and the klipot would be able to take hold there, G-d forbid. Since Zu'N are Back to Back, and her face is projected outward, the klipot are afraid to approach her face.
Also, when they are Back to Back they are joined together with one Back, like what is found sometimes among Siamese Twins. Because they are joined together by one Back the klipot cannot insinuate themselves between them to attack the back of Nukva.
The klipot suck when there is a little bit of light, but when there is a lot of light it is their nemesis. When Zu'N receive greater light from above, then the threat from the klipot is diminished. It is then possible to expose her back, and allow them to turn Face to Face in order to accomplish the Unification of Face to Face.
However, since they were joined by one Back, in order to turn Face to Face a process that the Ari has compared to surgery must separate them. Specifically, Z'A must receive sufficient light from above to enable the shared Back to double, one for him and one for her. Then they are separated Sefirah by Sefirah, until they are two, separate, independent partzufim. This is the first stage of the process called nesira - the Separation. It is a very important concept in the Lurianic Kabbala.
He gives her light and builds her up until they are both Face to Face…Nesira plays an especially important role in the intentions of the weekday meditative prayer in the word be'ahava - "in love" - which appears in the first blessing of the Standing Prayer. Z'A began with a lot of light, and Nukva with only a little. During nesira he gives her his light, and she receives an additional enormous amount from above. At that time he is asleep like an anesthetized person in an operation; he is dormant, nearly non-existent. At the end of the nesira he receives once again an influx of light directly from above. She is diminished again but is then opposite his face and not connected to his back. Little by little throughout the rest of the prayer, he gives her light and builds her up until they are both Face to Face, receiving more or less equally from above, and ready for the Unification of Face to Face. This is be'ahava - in love!
It seems that the Ari has deliberately made this allusion because of his explanation of the teaching of the Zohar concerning the Sanctuary of Love. Since the old souls from the level of BY'A can enter the Sanctuary of Love, they can be separated and turned towards each other to enable the Unification of Face to Face that will give birth to them anew. The souls of Atzilut, however, cannot enter the Sanctuary of Love at this time.
In summary, all old souls come from him [from Adam].All old souls come from the soul body of Adam. New souls do not come from him specifically because they are new, as if they were never in the world before. Old souls from BY'A can be elevated, renewed, and reborn as new souls, even in this period from the Destruction of the Temple until the Resurrection of the Dead. New souls from the level of Atzilut will only come into the world after the Resurrection.
Why are the Klipah afraid? It is not explained only hinted. The face of Nukvah has more light than the back of Nukva. The Klipah sense that this light is too strong for it to exist. That is the meaning of fear in a spiritual concept. Does this apply to the meaning of fear in the physical world?
While reading this did you utilize the metaphors and examples to picture in your mind this process? Remember these descriptions are metaphorical. In order to make this work, Adam must first fall asleep or enter the stage called Dormita. Now in this stage Adam - Zeir Anpin transfers light to the Nukva. This Light starts with the Mental Light of the Gimmel Rishonot Sefirot - the upper three. You may have heard that Adam receives the Mochin of the Female which he transfers to her. Or in more physical terms, a man does not have a Malchut. His wife is his Malchut and she receives her Mochin from him. Stop reacting as this is dealing with the Feminist and Chauvenist issues and strive to understand this from the frame of the Sefirot and a spiritual process of Sefirot.
Now it is probably still unclear what is Face to Face and Back to Back. The ideas of additional Light being given both to Malchut and Zeir Anpin in the sections above are not truly clear yet. Yet we have sufficient information to realize how this process occurs. I am going to paste section 1 for additional study. I suggest you move back and forth between these two sections until you have a comfort level that you undertstand the concepts of Back to Back, Face to Face, Dormita, and Nesira. You will find the Hebrew words helpful to permutate to assist in this process of understanding. You also will be using the concept of Alternating Consciousness as taught in Class 6 of the sefer Yetzirah class.
Face to Face = פנים לפנים
Back to Back = אחורים ךאחורים
Dormita = דורמיתה
Nesira = נשירא
I have been trying to find these words spelled either in Hebrew and or Aramaic and have been unsuccesful as of yet. Please understand that these terms are in the Aramaic of the Zohar which is a completely different dialect from the Talmud.
This spirit is called 'Love,' and for that reason the chamber is called 'the chamber of love.' For here the mystery of mysteries were stored for whomever should conceive it. This is the secret of the verse, "There will I give you my love" (Shir Hashirim 7:13).
הַאי רוּחָא אִקְרֵי אַהֲבָה. ובג"ד, אִקְרֵי הֵיכָל דָּא, הֵיכָל אַהֲבָה. בְּגִין דְּהָכָא אִתְגְנִיזוּ כָּל רָזָא דְּרָזִין, לְמַאן דְּאִצְטְרִיךְ לְאִתְדַּבְּקָא בֵּיהּ. וְהָכָא הוּא רָזָא דִּכְתִיב, שָׁם אֶתֵּן אֶת דּוֹדִי לָךְ.
This spirit is in charge of the keeping above, called "He who keeps Yisrael" (Tehilim 121:3), "who keeps covenant" (Devarim 7:9). Here are kept all the supernal treasures, and the stores of his Master are there stored. From here start all the paths and ways to those below, to awaken in them the spirit of love.
רוּחָא דָּא, אִיהוּ נָטִיר כָּל נְטִירוּ דִּלְעֵילָּא, וְדָא אִקְרֵי שׁוֹמֵר יִשְׂרָאֵל. שׁוֹמֵר הַבְּרִית. בְּגִין דְּהָכָא אִיהוּ נְטִירוּ דְּכָל גִּנְזִין עִלָּאִין, וְעַל דָּא גְּנִיזִין דְּמָארֵיהּ גְּנִיזִין בֵּיהּ. מֵהַאי נַפְקֵי שְׁבִילִין וְאָרְחִין לְאִינּוּן דִּלְתַתָּא, בְּגִין לְאַתְעֲרָא בְּהוּ רוּחָא דִּרְחִימוּתָא.
The four said colors were included within one another. Whenever they wish to be included, they strike each other, and one holy living creature emerges called 'splendor' (Heb. zohar). Of this living creature it is written, "This is the living creature that I saw by the river K'var" (Yechezkel 10:20).
אִלֵּין ד' גְּוָונִין דְּבֵיהּ, אִתְּכְלִילָן דָּא בְּדָא. וְכַד בָּעָאן לְאַכְלְלָא, בָּטַשׁ דָּא בְּדָא, וְנָפַק מִכֻּלְּהוּ חַד חֵיוָתָא קַדִישָׁא, דְּאִקְרֵי זֹהַר. וְהַאי חֵיוָתָא עַל דָּא כְּתִיב, הִיא הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר רָאִיתִי עַל נְהַר כְּבָר.
From this chamber come out all the holy spirits, sustained by the existence of the supernal kissing. For from these kisses an air of a spirit issues that sustains the ilfe of all the high souls given to men. This is the secret of the verse, "but by every word that proceeds out of the mouth of Hashem does man live" (Devarim 8:3). In this chamber you may find all the souls and spirits destined to descend to men since the world was created. Therefore, this chamber holds all the souls born of that river which is drawn and issuing, Yesod of Zeir Anpin, and therefore is never empty.
מֵהֵיכָלָא דָּא, נָפְקִין כָּל רוּחִין קַדִישִׁין דְּקַיְימִין בְּקִיּוּמָא דְּנְשִׁיקִין עִלָּאִין. דְּהָא מֵאִינּוּן נְשִׁיקִין, נָפְקָא אֲוֵירָא דְּרוּחָא, לְקִיּוּמָא דְּנַפְשָׁא לְכָל אִינּוּן נִשְׁמָתִין עִלָּאִין, דְּאִתְיְיהִיבוּ בִּבְנֵי נָשָׁא. וְרָזָא הַהוּא דִּכְתִיב, כִּי עַל כָּל מוֹצָא פִּי יְיָ' יִחְיֶה הָאָדָם. בְּגִין דִּבְהַאי הֵיכָלָא קַיְימִין כָּל נִשְׁמָתִין, וְכָל רוּחִין, דִּזְמִינִין לְנַחְתָּא בִּבְנֵי נָשָׁא, מִיּוֹמָא דְּאִתְבְּרֵי עָלְמָא. וְעַל דָּא, הֵיכָלָא דָּא נַקְטָא, כָּל אִינּוּן נִשְׁמָתִין דְּנָפְקִין מֵהַהוּא נָהָר דְּנָגִיד וְנָפִיק. וּבְגִין דָּא, הֵיכָלָא דָּא לָא קַיְּימָא לְעָלְמָא בְּרֵיקָנַיָּיא.
Since the destruction of the Temple no other souls came in here. And when there will be no more, namely, all the souls in this chamber will go down to be clothed in men, this chamber will be empty, and it will be visited from above, and King Messiah will come. Then the chamber above will be aroused â€“ Malchut â€“ and the chamber below, so His kingdom will be revealed in this world.
וּמִיּוֹמָא דְּאִתְחָרַב בֵּי מַקְדְשָׁא, לָא עָאלוּ הָכָא נִשְׁמָתִין אַחֲרָנִין. וְכַד יִסְתַּיְימוּן אִלֵּין, הֵיכָלָא קַיְּימָא בְּרֵיקָנַיָּא, וְיִתְפְּקַד מִלְּעֵילָּא, וּכְדֵין יֵיתֵי מַלְכָּא מְשִׁיחָא. וְאַתְעַר הֵיכָלָא דָּא לְעֵילָּא, וְיִתְעַר הֵיכָלָא לְתַתָא.
It is written of the secret of this chamber, "your two breasts are like two fawnsâ€¦" (Shir Hashirim 4:5). For in this chamber there is the spirit we mentioned, love, and that living creature, splendor, and their joining together issued two lights, included in one another, and united together, to be called, 'El Shaddai'. The two lights are called 'Shaddai', and together with El of the chamber below called Zechut El, they join each other and intermingle to be called 'El Shaddai', for they issued from the two breasts (Heb. shaddayim).
וּבְרָזָא דְּהֵיכָלָא דָּא כְּתִיב, שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים וְגוֹ'. בְּגִין דִּבְהֵיכָלָא דָּא הַהוּא רוּחָא דְּקָאָמַרָן, וְהַהוּא חֵיוָתָא, אַפִיק תְּרֵין נְהוֹרִין כְּלִילָן דָּא בְּדָא, מִתְקַשְּׁרָן דָּא בְּדָא, וְאִקְרוּן אֵ"ל שַׁדַּ"י. אִלֵּין אִקְרוּן שַׁדַּ"י, וְאֵ"ל דִּלְתַּתָּא, מִתְחַבְּרָן דָּא בְּדָא, וְאָעִיל דָּא בְּדָא, וְאִקְרֵי אֵ"ל שַׁדָ"י. בְּגִין דְּנָפַק מִכְלָלָא דְּאִלֵּין שָׁדַיִם.
The name 'El' is of the right. It takes from this place all the compassion there that nourish the chamber below called 'merit,' named after the spirit in it, as we said. The name 'Shaddai' suckles all the lower beings and all the chambers, and those standing outside on this side, called 'the pegs of the Tabernacle," as we explained. It is therefore called 'Shaddai', for giving plenty of food to the lower beings, that it receives from the right.
וְהַאי אֵ"ל דְּאִיהוּ מִסִּטְרָא דִּימִינָא, נָטִיל מֵאֲתָר דָּא, כָּל אִינּוּן רַחֲמִין, דְּקַיְימֵי לְאַתְזָנָא הַהוּא הֵיכָלָא דִּלְתַתָא, דְּאִקְרֵי זְכוּתָ"א, עַל שְׁמָא דְּהַאי רוּחָא דְּבֵיהּ דְּקָאָמַרָן. הַאי שָׁדַּי, יָנִיק לְכָל אִינּוּן תַּתָּאִין, וּלְכָל אִינּוּן הֵיכָלִין, וּלְכָל אִינּוּן דִּלְבַר, דְּקַיְימֵי מִסִּטְרָא דָּא, דְּאִקְרוּן יִתְדוֹת הַמִּשְׁכָּן, כְּמָה דְּאוֹקִימְנָא. וְעַל דָּא אִקְרֵי שַׁדַּי, בְּגִין דִּמְסַפְּקָא מְזוֹנָא לְכֻלְּהוּ תַּתָּאֵי, כְּמָה דְּאִיהוּ מְקַבְּלָא, מִסִּטְרָא דִּימִינָא.
From here come out the lights called, "the bright blade of a revolving sword" (Beresheet 3:24), for they revolve and turn into several colors. We already explained that they are those aroused to accomplish a mission above. And in this world they are of the left. When this spirit expands, it strikes and emits lights on all sides, RIGHT AND LEFT, like breasts pouring milk on all sides. So from this spirit lights come out on every side, and issue another living creature in charge over those called 'the bright blade of a revolving sword'. This is called (A FEW LINES ARE MISSING).
מֵהָכָא, נָפְקוּ אִינּוּן נְהוֹרִין, דְּאִקְרוּן לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת. בְּגִין דְּמִתְהַפְּכָא לְכַמָּה גְּוָונִין, וְהָא אוֹקִימְנָא, דְּאִלֵּין מִתְעָרֵי דִּינָא בִּשְׁלִיחוּתָא דִּלְעֵילָּא, וְאִינּוּן בְּעָלְמָא מִסְּטָר שְׂמָאלָא, כַּד אִתְפָּשַׁט רוּחָא דָּא, וּבָטַשׁ לְאַפָקָא נְהוֹרִין לְכָל סִטְרִין, כְּאִינּוּן שָׁדַיִם דְּרָמָאן חֲלָבָא לְכָל סְטָר, הָכִי נָמֵי מֵהַאי רוּחָא, נַפְקֵי לְכָל סְטָר, וְאַפִיקוּ חַד חֵיוָתָא אַחֲרָא, דִּי מְמָנָא עַל אִלֵּין, דְּאִקְרֵי לַהַט הַחֶרֶב הַמִּתְהַפֶּכֶת. וְדָא אִקְרֵי.
(THE BEGINNING IS MISSING) he is in charge over the world. When there is hunger, and the world is sentenced to it, this living creature is appointed over the world. It issues a spirit of nourishment to the faithful, so they will not starve on account of the Other Side. While hunger has sway over the world, two spirits of defilement issue from that side, called "destruction and famine." This is the secret of the verse, "At destruction and famine you shall laugh" (Iyov 5:22). They abide in the world and denounce men. The one who sends them hunger and they die IS DESTRUCTION. When the other, FAMINE, has sway, people eat but are never satisfied, WHICH IS FAMINE because an evil spirit rules over the world.
וְהַהוּא וְהַאי דִּמְמָנָא עַל עָלְמָא. בְּזִמְנָא דִּי מְמָנָא כַּפְנָא עַל עָלְמָא וְאִתְדָּן בֵּיהּ, כְּדֵין הַאי חֵיוָתָא אִתְפָּקְדָא עַל עָלְמָא, וְאַפִיק רוּחָא דִּמְזוֹנָא, לְכָל אִינּוּן בְּנֵי מְהֵימְנוּתָא, דְּלָא יְמוּתוּן בְּכַפְנָא, וְסָעִיד לִבַּיְיהוּ. בְּגִין דְּהָא מִסִּטְרָא אַחֲרָא, כַּד שַׁלְטָא כַּפְנָא בְּעָלְמָא, נַפְקֵי מֵהַאי סִטְרָא תְּרֵין רוּחִין מִסְאֲבִין, וְאִקְרוּן שׁוֹד וְכָפָן. וְדָא אִיהוּ רָזָא, לְשׁוֹד וּלְכָפָן תִּשְׂחָק. בְּגִין דְּאִלֵּין קַיְימִין בְּעָלְמָא, וְעַבְדִין לוֹן לִבְנֵי נָשָׁא קִטְרוּגָא. חַד, הַהוּא דְּקָא מְשַׁדֵּר לְהוּ כַּפְנָא, וּמַיְיתִי. וְחַד, דְּקָא אַכְלֵי בְּנֵי נָשָׁא וְלָא שַׂבְעִין, בְּגִין דְּהָא רוּחָא בִּישָׁא שַׁלְטָא בְּעָלְמָא.
This is the living creature, which produced the spark coming out of the two glittering sparks, that revolve and turn into several colors, SOMETIMES FEMALE, SOMETIMES MALE. This spark is called 'Seraphim'. It grasps and inflames them.
Verse 644חֵיוָתָא דָּא, אַפִיק חַד נִיצוֹצָא, דְּקָא נָפִיק מִנְּצִיצוּ דִּתְרֵין נִיצוֹצִין דְּאַמָרָן, דְּאִינּוּן מִתְהַפְּכָאן לְכַמָּה גְּוָונִין. וְהַאי נִיצוֹצָא אִקְרֵי שְׂרָפִים, וְהַאי אָחִיד בְּהוֹן, וְלָהִיט לוֹן. In this chamber there are two officers, lights standing upon thousands and tens of thousands called 'vines', and thousands and tens of thousands called 'pomegranates'. They all exist through love, and bring love between Yisrael below, and the Holy One, blessed be He, above. They all arouse love and endure through love. When love is awakened from below upward, and from above downward, the chamber is filled with goodness, and charity, and mercy, and the love below and the love above join each other. BET-HEI BELOW ARE ATTACHED TO ALEPH-HEI ABOVE. (ALEPH-HEI-BET-HEI = AHAVEH, LIT. 'LOVE').
בְּהֵיכָלָא דָּא אִית תְּרֵין מְמָנָן, נְהוֹרִין דְּקַיְימִין עַל אֶלֶף וְרִבּוֹא רִבְּבָן דְּאִקְרוּן גְּפָנִים, וְאֶלֶף, וְרִבּוֹא רִבְּבָן דְּאִקְרוּן רִמּוֹנִים, וְכֻלְּהוּ קַיְימִין בַּחֲבִיבוּתָא, וְאִלֵּין אִינּוּן דְּאַעֲלֵי רְחִימוּתָא בֵּין יִשְׂרָאֵל לְתַתָּא, וְקוּדְשָׁא בְּרִיךְ הוּא לְעֵילָּא. וְכֻלְּהוּ מִתְעָרֵי רְחִימוּתָא, וְקַיְימָן בִּרְחִימוּ. וְכַד אַתְעַר רְחִימוּ מִתַּתָּא לְעֵילָּא, וּמֵעֵילָּא לְתַתָּא, כְּדֵין אִתְמַלְיָא הֵיכָלָא, דָּא, מִכַּמָּה טָבִין, מִכַּמָּה חֲסָדִין, מִכַּמָּה רַחֲמִין וּכְדֵין רְחִימוּ דִּלְתַתָּא, גּוֹ רְחִימוּ עִלָּאָה, אִתְדַּבָּק דָּא בְּדָא.
From here come out two chiefs, called 'love' after the chamber. Their duty is to watch over those who proclaim the unison of the Master with love, sacrifice their lives with love, and ascend to testify above. All those who do an act of kindness in the world, these acts go up and enter this chamber to be adorned, then go further up to be adorned by the supernal love. Concerning this the verse says, "For Your kindness (Heb. Chesed) is great above the heavens" (Tehilim 108:5). Of this chamber it is written, "Many waters cannot quench love, nor can the floods drown itâ€¦" (Shir Hashirim 8:7).
מֵהָכָא נַפְקֵי תְּרֵין מְמָנָן, וְאִקְרוּן אַהֲבָה, עַל שְׁמָא דְּהֵיכָלָא. וְאִלֵּין קַיְימִין לְאַשְׁגָּחָא עַל כָּל אִינּוּן דִּמְיַחְדֵּי יִחוּדָא דְּמָארֵיהוֹן בִּרְחִימוּ, וּמַסְרֵי נַפְשַׁיְיהוּ עָלֵיהּ בִּרְחִימוּ, וְסַלְקֵי וְאַסְהִידוּ לְעֵילָּא וְכָל אִינּוּן דְּעַבְדֵּי חֶסֶד בְּעָלְמָא, אִינּוּן חֲסָדִין סַלְּקִין וְעָאלִין גּוֹ הַאי הֵיכָלָא, וּמִתְעַטְּרֵי תַּמָּן, וְסַלְקֵי לְאִתְעַטְּרָא גּוֹ אַהֲבָה עִלָּאָה. וְעַל דָּא כְּתִיב, כִּי גָּדוֹל מֵעַל שָׁמַיִם חַסְדֶּךָ. בְּהֵיכָלָא דָּא כְּתִיב, מַיִם רַבִּים לֹֹא יוּכְלוּ לְכַבּוֹת אֶת הָאַהֲבָה וּנְהָרוֹת לֹֹא יִשְׁטְפוּהָ וְגוֹ'.
Division of Adam's Soul
Chapter 6 Section 3
Translation from Sha'ar Hagilgulim by Yitzchok bar Chaim; commentary by Shabtai Teicher
This section is an interruption (not really as the ARI is well aware of the way the human being learns and processes information that potentially becomes wisdom) between the previous section dealing with Back to Back Creation and the next section dealing with the process of transforming to Face to Face.
[The body and soul of] Adam divides into 248 "limbs" just as does his body. In addition, there are other aspects, such as the countless "hairs" that hang from his body.
Hair is a spiritual item that must be understood in a spiritual context. At the end of this section i will have a small essary touching on this subject. Later in the Gates of Reincarnation we will go into greater details on this subject.
The Rav is referring to the spiritual counterpart of the body hair. Not just limbs, but even incidental aspects such as the spiritual counterparts of body hair may be the root of souls.
All the sparks of the individual souls in this world are from these aspects that are within Adam. All of the specific souls and levels of souls that will later enter bodies born from Adam are called "Soul-Roots" and are drawn from these aspects of Adam.
Concerning each and every limb, it is exactly as the sages understood the verse, "Where were you when I founded the earth?" (Job 38:4).
This was discussed at length in Chapter Three, Section 2. The Hebrew words for "where were you" can also be construed to mean "a lifeless lump."
The roots of all the souls that would descend from Adam were implanted within him… When Adam was only a lifeless lump, G-d breathed into him a living soul. At that time the roots of all the souls that would descend from Adam were implanted within him.
When Job complains about his lot, G-d says to him, "Where were you when I founded the earth?" In other words, "If you do not know the root of your soul and where you were in the soul body of Adam when I breathed into him a living soul, then you do not know your own history, and, if this is so, how can you complain about what happens to you?!"
We have already explained that most souls are from Cain and Abel, the sons of Adam.
This statement is problematic, since there are several places in the writings of the Ari himself that seem to contradict it. See, for example, Benei Aharon.
From that time onward, they have since divided among all people ever born. Even though we won't explain this concept in detail now, since this is not the place to do so, we will provide an example of what it means.
For example, suppose that Abel is the aspect of the head of all the souls. Then Abel would be the root of all the individual sparks of human souls that are in the aspect of the head.
This type of kabbalistic conception was discussed in the extended note to Chapter Five, Section 5: Connected Levels of Soul.
Likewise, if our patriarch Abraham was the right arm of Adam, then all the individual sparks that belong to the right arm of Adam are included in Abraham. He will be considered the root of all of them.
It is the same for every limb and hair of the soul of Adam. However, this is not the place for this discussion.
This is the promised discussion about the spiritual aspect of hair. Initially there are a few paragraphs taken from an essay by Yosef Y Jacobson a well known Speaker, and Writer on the subject of Kabbalah and Chasidut. His orientation is directly related to the Chabad organization.
So how does Jewish mysticism view the significance of hair?
Hairs act as "straws" transmitting profound and inaccessible energy. Each strand of hair, shaped like a straw (the form of the Hebrew letter Vav), communicates a level of soul-energy that due to its intensity cannot be communicated directly, only through the "straw" of hair, through the contracted, and curtailed medium of hair, which dilutes the intense energy.
Now, the Kabbala distinguishes between "fine hair" and "coarse hair" - the fine hair decorating the cranium, present immediately during birth, and the coarse hair of the beard, appearing only at a male's entry into adulthood. The hair that links the "fine" and the "coarse" are the peyot, the hair extending from the skull, down the jawbone, after which it merges with the beard.
The hair growing on top of the cranium, the "fine hair," represents the deeply concealed energy stemming from the interior of the skull, identified by Kabbala as the location for the super-conscious formations of the human psyche. The deepest and most primal forces of our psyche, the supra-rational desires and cravings of the soul formulated even prior to the birth of cognition, are associated in Jewish mysticism with the skull, defined as "the crown over the brain," or simply Keter," which means the crown. Keter is seen as the most lofty and elevated part of the soul, its link to G-d, Who also transcends reason and logic.
The hair of the male beard, on the other hand, the "coarse hair," represents the energy stemming from the sub conscious cognitive impressions of the human psyche, located within the higher and lower brain. This dimension of the human soul is known in Kabbalah as "Mocha Stima'a" (or "the hidden cognition"), and stands one rung below the level of Keter.
(This is the mystical reason for the feminine body not developing a beard. As mentioned above, the mystical function of hair is to access, in a contracted and curtailed fashion, energy that is inaccessible due to its profundity. Women, however, are naturally more in tuned with their sub conscious cognition, and therefore do not require the "straws" of hair to access that level of self.)s
The ARIzal teaches above that the hair on Adam's Body is a soul root source for various souls. In His commentaries on the Parasiot he relates aditional information which i am summarizing below.
The ARIzal teaches that there are 13 components of the hair in the beard and relates these to the 13 Attributes of Mercy as taught in the Sefer Shemot. He also indicates that there are 9 locations of hair on the body which relates to the 9 components of hair as taught in Sefer Bamidbar. Together 13 + 9 = 22. Thus there is a relationship between these 22 locations/types of hair and the Hebrew Letters and the types of human soul roots.
Elsewhere the ARIzal explains that the hair of the beard is actually Light of the Soul that is extending down into the body. As it travels through the narrow place (the neck) not all of this Light is able to descend. Thus this Light bursts through the skin and becomes the beard. This is due to the nature of Light which is to expand and share itself. This same explanation applies to the hair on the body.
Since the women at the time of puberty does not have her own Mochin but receives this through the Antennae of her Head Hair from the universe in general until she becomes married and then starts to receive this energy from her husband, the ARIzal teaches that this is the reason why a women does not grow a beard while a man does grow a beard.
The Kabbalah teaches that the hair on the head of a women is drawing the energy of judgment while this is especially true during her period since the blood indicates a period of judgment since there was an opportunity to bring a child (a large revelation of Light) that was lost.
The hair on the head of a man is drawing the energy of Chesed which is why the man wears his Tefillin on his Head.
Chapter 6 Section 4
Translation from Sha'ar Hagilgulim by Yitzchok bar Chaim; commentary by Shabtai Teicher
Now we will explain the individual types of teshuvah [repentance] that a person must perform, and through them you will understand a little of this analysis.
In this Section the Rav is continuing the discourse that he began in the beginning of the Chapter. The souls that were created from the Unification of Back to Back are destined to return, ascend, and to be reborn in the Unification of Face to Face. In order for this to happen, eight levels of teshuvah must be attained.
There are eight divisions of teshuvah.
Each specific place in the soul body of Adam contains the roots of all the four worlds of ABY'A [i.e. Asiya, Beriya, Yetzira, Atzilut]. The teshuvah discussed here concerns rectification of damage that was done by sin in the roots of the souls, in the soul body of Adam. The higher one's Soul Root, the greater the damage his sin will cause.
First of all, if a person has a Nefesh from the world of Asiya and he sins, he causes a separation of (the world of) Yetzira from that of Asiya in the specific place from which the root of his soul is suspended. This person's teshuva would reunite Asiya with Yetzira on the level of the root of his Nefesh.
Similarly, if someone who has Ruach from Yetzira sins, he will need to rejoin Yetzira to Beriya on the level of his root. Likewise, someone who has a Neshama from Beriya must reunite Beriya to Atzilut. These are the three levels of teshuva from the lower worlds of BY'A.
There are five higher levels of teshuva in the world of Atzilut itself. The first is to cause the return of malchut of Atzilut to its place, which is below the Yesod, in the specific level of his Soul Root, as we discussed.
The information being described by the Rav here corresponds to an important introductory lesson in Etz Chaim, The Palace of the Consort of Z'A, and especially the "Gate of the Moon's Diminution" - 36:1, concerning the tikune of Malchut of Atzilut. In each successive stage of tikune she ascends through Atzilut until she reaches the stage of the Unification of Face to Face with Z'A.
In the first stage, her starting point in Atzilut, she is below the Yesod of Z'A. This is before she is a partzuf, when she is only a "point."/
The second (stage) is to return her to a higher place, which is Nh'y, the place from which she emanated, as is known.
Nh'y is the acronym for the Sefirot Netzach, Hod and Yesod. At first, Nukva of Z'A is a point under the Yesod of Z'A. When she begins to grow, she becomes a full partzuf from the back of the chest of Z'A, extending downward to the end of his feet on the floor of Atzilut. This is when Zu'N are connnected Back to Back, and she receives all her light from him.
…then she begins to receive light that is imparted to her…
The chest of Z'A is above nh'y (often described as being located 2/3 of the way up Tiferet), but sometimes the Rav will designate it as nh'y.
When she is only a point below Yesod, she has not yet begun any tikune at all. When she begins to get tikune, then she begins to receive light that is imparted to her from Z'A. This light is transmitted to her from a point that is in the back of the chest of Z'A. Therefore, this point, which the Rav is calling nh'y, is called the point from which she has emerged, and so it is known throughout the kabbalah.
The third (stage) returns her to a yet higher level, to the chg't.
Chg't denotes the Sefirot of Chesed, Gevurah and Tiferet. She is still in the back of Z'A, although she has probably reached the apogee of her growth there, although this point is also not exactly equivalent to chg't of Z'A, but a bit higher. This is just before the nesira (see the end of Section 2, this chapter).
The fourth (stage) is to cause her to return to a higher (level), to chb'd, which are the three mochin of Z'A.
Chb'd refers to the three Sefirot of Chochmah, Binah and Daat. These are the mochin, or brains, of the partzuf, as one might surmise from the translations of these terms: Wisdom-Chochmah, Understanding-Binah, and Knowledge-Daat.
Probably, the Rav is referring here to the stage where Nukva is Face to Face with Z'A, nearly equal in stature to him, and just before Unification. At this stage, the Keter of Z'A is still higher than the Keter of Nukva, and she is receiving her light from him. It is referred to by the nomenclature chb'd because that term indicates the internal aspect or the Front Face of the partzuf, and it is appropriate here because they are Face to Face.
These four elevations are all within the level of Zeir Anpin.
there is a fifth teshuvah, more essential and elevated than the rest of them, and that is to elevate it (the malchut of Atzilut) to the level of Abba and Imma.
This is the level where the Unification of Face to Face takes place. Her keter is now equivalent to the Keter of Z'A. They receive their levels of Keter directly from Abba and Imma. Indeed, their levels of Keter were once part of the bodies of Abba and Imma. Therefore, it is appropriate to call this the level of Abba and Imma. Also, Nukva will now receive her light directly from Imma without any intermediary.
This level is alluded to in Sefer HaTikunim and it is called the "Eighth Level," because Imma (i.e., Binah) is the eighth from below to above.
Normally,Binah is called the eighth because it is the eighth Sefirah, counting from below to above. Here, also, it is the eighth level of teshuvah.
In my opinion the abbreviations become confusing in this section so here is a summary / review.
1. Zeir Anpin is a full partzuf of 10 Sefirot. Nukva is a single point. They are back to back with the Nukva being below the level of spinal column of Zeir Anpin.
2. Zeir Anpin is feeding the Nukva directly and she grows to become the level of the last third of the Sefirot. This is called Yesod Hod and Netzach. They are still back to back.
3. Zeir Anpin is continuing to feed the Nukva and she continues to grow to become the middle third which is Tiferet, Gevurah, and Chesed. They are still back to back although there are now the beginnings of 2 different spines.
4th Stage also called First stage of Atzilut. Zeir Anpin is continuing to feed the Nukva directly. She grows to the level of a full Partzuf to include Binah Chochmah and Keter. They are still Back to Back.
5th Stage also called the Second Stage of Atzilut. Zeir Anpin is still feeding her and she continues to grow moving back to her original location of the Yesod Hod and Netzach of Zeir Anpin. They are still Back to Back.
6th Stage also called the Third Stage of Atzilut. Zeir Anpin is still feeding her. There are now two complete spines with the Malchut being slightly above Zeir Anpin. She has grown the levels of Tiferet Gevurah and Chesed of Zeir Anpin. They are still Back to Back although this is the point of Nasira (separation) as explained in Section 2.
7th Stage also called the Fourth Stage of Atzilut. They move to be Face to Face while she continues to grow her Mochin - the level of Binah Chochmah and Daat.
8th Stage also called the Fifth Stage of Atzilut. They are Face to Face. In this stage she grows a Keter and this Keter rises to the same level as Zeir Anpin. The Nukva begins to receive directly from the level of Binah.
Chapter 6 Section 5
Translation from Sha'ar Hagilgulim by Yitzchok bar Chaim; commentary by Shabtai Teicher
It is important to know that the impact of one's sin is dependent upon the level of his soul. Thus, someone whose Nefesh is from the malchut of Atzilut will cause a blemish in that level and to his soul root there. This is the case for the rest of the levels as well.
However, if a person in a previous gilgul had a Nefesh and Ruach from Asiya and Yetzirah and then sinned and blemished his Ruach, this would necessitate reincarnation into a second person. Even if only the Nefesh returned into this [second] person, when he sins he blemishes Yetzirah, as if he had also received the level of Ruach.
In his previous gilgul he blemished both Nefesh and Ruach. Only Nefesh reincarnates. Nevertheless, if he sins in the new gilgul, it will also blemish Yetzirah, as if he had also received Ruach. Because he had Ruach in a previous gilgul he can blemish it again in his current gilgul, even though he currently only has his Nefesh.
Also, when he (the second person) wants to do teshuvah, he must perform a tikune as if he had a blemished Nefesh and Ruach.
He only has a blemished Nefesh, but he must repair the damage as if he had both Nefesh and Ruach, even though a blemished Nefesh and Ruach cannot reincarnate together.
Also regarding teshuvah, it is necessary to know the manner of one's gilgulim, which we will briefly explain now based upon what we have discussed in another place.
This is a continuation of the subject of teshuvah, which was discussed in the last section.
Suppose that a person, for example, reincarnated twenty to thirty times before hand. He will need to know if the first ones had NR'N from BY'A, and if he blemished them. If that is the case, then all the subsequent thirty, even if the Nefesh alone entered each one, will have to rectify as if they blemished all of BY'A, since the first one that preceded all of them was a Nefesh that received light from the Neshama of Beriya. Thus, to complete his teshuva he will have to return the light that it [his soul] had in the beginning.
Although Nefesh only is reincarnating in the current gilgul, he must rectify all three levels of the soul. This is because all three levels of the soul were blemished together in the first gilgulim. The reason for this is that the Nefesh received light from the higher levels when they reincarnated together. Rectification of the Nefesh includes rectification of the higher lights that had become part of her existence. And those higher lights belong to Ruach and Neshama.
Furthermore, this phenomenon has very important implications for some of the things that we observe in this world.
This is the esoteric meaning of the verse, "…For she has taken from the hand of G-d double for all her sins." (Isaiah 40:2).
One cannot grasp such matters, but he must trust that all G-d does is righteous …
Sometimes a person will commit a (relatively) light sin, but they will be very strict and very exacting with him, punishing him as if he committed a severe sin, "twice" what he did. Thus, one cannot fully fathom the ways of G-d when he sees someone experiencing this. One cannot grasp such matters, but he must trust that all G-d does is righteous and with justice.
It seems that he is getting a double punishment, something completely disproportionate relative to the sin, but it is because he is being punished for the blemishes caused by his sin in the higher worlds of Yetzira and Beriya as well.
When one who does not have this special knowledge about the roots of gilgulim sees a case of retribution that is apparently inordinate relative to the sin, he may begin to doubt, G-d forbid, the justice of the divine system of reward and punishment. Therefore, "he must trust that all G-d does is righteous and with justice."
However, suppose from the first [gilgul] through the ninth of the thirty he only merited a Nefesh and a Ruach, but for the tenth [gilgul] he merited a Neshama; he then sinned and blemished it. Any sins that resulted during the first nine blemished the Ruach, and even more so, the Nefesh. However, regarding the tenth and all those after it, through the thirtieth, the blemish and tikune will also affect the Neshama. Based upon this, you should be able to figure out any other case.
Thus, we find that a person cannot do complete teshuvah as it should be done until he knows his Soul-Root and the levels of gilgulim of his soul that preceded him. The Zohar, when discussing the verse, "Tell me, you whom my soul loves" (Song of Songs 1:7) is adamant about this. It discusses there at length that a person needs to know the identity of his soul, why it has come into this world, and what it needs to rectify.
Obviously, this requires knowledge beyond the normal. See for example, Kol Hatur, "Remizin Kadishin."
Later in these classes we will discuss techniques for findout out about your Soul-Root, and other information needed to complete your Tikune.
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